Queued Transactions

Persistent message queues provide the basis for queued transactions. This example illustrates an atomic transfer of money between accounts in different banks even though all transactions are local (there are no distributed transactions).

Queued Transactions

Bank C has a local database containing

Bank A has a local database containing

Bank B has a local database containing

Initially suppose NQ1 = NQ2 = 0 and A1 = A1 = $100.

Bank C wants to transfer $10 from account A1 to account A2. This is achieved with an atomic transaction on its local database:

Some time later bank A receives the message to deduct $10 from account A1. Bank A then applies an atomic transaction on its local database:

Some time later bank B receives the message to add $10 to account A2. Bank B then applies a atomic transaction on its local database:

It is possible to avoid a negative balance: Introduce two holding accounts A3,A4 on C. C transfers A1 to local A3. A transfers from A3 to A4. When C finds money in A4 it transfers to A2.

ATMs are designed to have a normal case behaviour and a partition mode behaviour. In partition mode availability is chosen over consistency. The issue is you might withdraw more money than you have so the end result might be consistent, but negative, which can’t be compensated for by asking for the money back, so instead, the bank will change you an overdraft penalty.